Although the archaeological site at Harappa was partially damaged in 1857 when engineers constructing the Lahore-Multan railroad used brick from the Harappa ruins for track ballast, an abundance of artefacts have nevertheless been found.
The five rivers, namely Chenab, Jhelum, Ravi, Beas and Sutlej, flow via the Panjnad River into the Indus River and eventually into the Arabian Sea.
Of the five great rivers of Punjab, four course through Pakistan's Punjab province.
Due to its location, the Punjab region came under constant attack and witnessed centuries of foreign invasions by the Persians, Greeks, Kushans, Scythians, Turks and Afghans.
The northwestern part of South Asia, including Punjab, was repeatedly invaded or conquered by various foreign empires, including those of Tamerlane, Alexander the Great and Genghis Khan. The Indus Valley Civilization spanned much of what is today Pakistan and eventually evolved into the Indo-Aryan civilisation.
Punjab reached the height of its splendour during the reign of the Mughal Empire, which for a time ruled from Lahore.
Following a successful rebellion, Sikh-led armies claimed Lahore in 1759.
It is a UN World Heritage site, valued for its archaeological and religious history.
The Achaemenid Persian empire included Pujab west of the Indus.
Turning to the northeast, Alexander marched to Pucela, the capital of the district now known as Pakhli.
He entered Western Punjab, where the ancient city of Nysa (at the site of modern-day Mong) was situated. Mahmud and Ayaz The Sultan is to the right, shaking the hand of the sheykh, with Ayaz standing behind him.
The provincial capital of Punjab is the city Lahore, a cultural centre of Pakistan where the country's cinema industry, and much of its fashion industry, are based.