When the writing on the reverse side of a sheet of paper in a bound ledger intersects with the writing on the front side of the sheet of paper, ink may be transferred from the front page onto an underlying page.Such transfers will occur only when inks are freshly applied. Initially inspired by the development of batteries, it covers technology in general and includes some interesting little known, or long forgotten, facts as well as a few myths about the development of technology, the science behind it, the context in which it occurred and the deeds of the many personalities, eccentrics and charlatans involved.
Free sex chat without user id - Forensic science ink dating
The electronics, computers and communications industries, power engineering and much of the chemical industry of today were founded on discoveries made possible by the battery.
Pioneers It is often overlooked that throughout the nineteenth century, most of the electrical experimenters, inventors and engineers who made these advances possible had to make their own batteries before they could start their investigations. the World was starting to emerge from the Stone Age. C., Mesopotamians (from modern day Iraq), who had already been active for hundreds of years in primitive metallurgy extracting metals such as copper from their ores, led the way into the Bronze Age when artisans in the cities of Ur and Babylon discovered the properties of bronze and began to use it in place of copper in the production of tools, weapons and armour.
For example, if transfers of ink are found on several pages of a diary, it indicates that the corresponding entries on the diary were made in a single sitting, not over a longer period as suggested by the dates.
Ink and Toner Intersections – When a signature (or a handwritten notation) intersects a printed text on a document, a forensic document examiner may be asked which came first, the text or the signature (handwritten notation).
The warning appeared on page 2 of the n Notwithstanding the gradual decline in the use of cheques, the intercepting of cheques between being filled out and being banked (often while in the mail but sometimes by a person on the inside) is an ongoing problem.
A dispute arose as to the genuineness of certain Platinum Certificates purporting to have been issued by the Union Bank of Switzerland.
These two ink aging methods are the Sequential Extraction Technique (SET) and Solvent Loss Ratio Method (SLRM).
The SET and SLRM measure certain ink aging parameters of ink that decrease as ink ages on paper. To date, the SET is the only ink aging method that has shown its reliability through outside proficiency testing using “blind” samples (outside proficiency tests in 1995, 2001, and 2011). Ink Availability Approach The second ink dating approach analyzes the chemical composition of inks on a contested document with the aim to determine whether these inks (as well as other materials used to produce the document – paper, inkjet printing ink, toner, stamp pad ink, etc.) were commercially available on or prior to the date appearing on the document. – The examination’s purpose is to assess whether the entries being compared were produced with the ink of the same composition or with different inks (pens). The order of execution of certain elements of a document Writing ink sequencing – Examining intersections (areas where two or more pen lines cross) to determine the order of writing (it may prove that a particular entry was added at a later time) Sequencing of indented impressions and writings – Examining intersections (areas where the visible ink lines cross the indentations) may determine the order of writing and thus prove that a particular entry was added at a later time.
Lecturer at numerous scientific and legal organization meetings to include the American Academy of Forensic Sciences, American Society of Questioned Documents Examiners, California Association of Criminalists, International Association of Forensic Scientists.