The singular and the plural are used similarly to many European languages.
Singular, plural and dual inflections of the same case always differ among themselves; no rule dictates how to form, for example, the plural inflection from the singular of the same case. skaĩčius 'number'; pavyzdỹs 'example', pãvyzdžio, pãvyzdžiui, pãvyzdį; kėdė̃ 'chair', kėdžių̃ etc.
So the official variant of Lithuanian has seven cases, and an eighth case is used in some dialects and reduced to an adverb in others.
For the word moteris the form motera were existent in dialects, but it is, differently from dukra, sesė cases, only a formal shift of declension without a meaning variation and such word would be perceived as a vernacularism and obsolete.
The forms from the two more declensions sometimes occur in a speech for the masculine words of the fifth declension: of the third and of the first declensions.
Today žmogus is declined in the fourth paradigm in singular (žmogus, žmogaus etc.) and in the third -ė paradigm in plural (žmonės, žmonių etc.). variants: vandens, vandenies, vandinies, vandenio, vandinio, vandnio.
The words pats m, pati f – one/my/him/her/itself (also noun meanings: husband and wife) have also peculiarities. nom.) is present only in two words: pati and marti – daughter-in-law. A drop can similarly occur in other languages, for example: Lith.
Traditionally, scholars count up to ten case forms in Lithuanian.
However, at least one case is reduced to adverbs, and another is extinct in the modern language.Such use like akmenas, akmeno; dančio; šunio; rudenio; is a clear mistake and is not accepted. It has two different sub-paradigms, one of which is the main paradigm. A case of petys, pečio instead of petys, peties is also a mistake, but petys is the only one -ys (instead of -is) form declined in the third declension and consequentely tends to be declined like all other -ys words (of the first declension). The second sub-paradigm is called "palatalized", which means that the last consonant of the stem before the inflection is always palatalized. Each Lithuanian consonant (except [j]) has two forms: palatalized and non-palatalized ([bʲ]-[b], [dʲ]-[d], [ɡʲ]-[ɡ] and so on). There are only two nouns ending in -i: pati 'wife' and marti 'daughter-in-law'.The consonants preceding vowels [i] and [e] are always moderately palatalized. Their declension is same to the second adjective feminine declension. Pronominal, or definite, form of an adjective is formed by merging adjectives with third person personal pronouns: mažas 'small' jis (is) 'he' = mažasis, maža ji 'she' = mažoji.Pats ( -is, -io) does not occur in speech, and if the accent moves from the ending to the stem in singular nominative, then the change of declension sometimes occurs.